What is NNTP?

Quite a number of people use NNTP on a regular basis and it is safe to say that some need it on a daily basis. NNTP is an application protocol used on the internet and it has two main functions.  Primarily, NNTP is used for reading as well as posting articles belonging on Usenet, which other people recognize as Netnews and for transferring news between news servers. NNTP exists on Application Layer, which belongs to OSI Model. There are some ports, which NNTP is known to use. One of the ports is TCP port 119 and the other one is TCP port 563. The second port is used by NNTP, which has SSL.  Usenet can be loosely defined as a huge internet system for shared messages.

The specification for NNTP, RFC 977 was completed in March of the year 1986.  Originally, the design of Usenet was around UUCP network. Many article transfers took place over telephone links of computers directly.  Therefore, posters and users logged in the very computers that were used to host the servers and read articles on the local disk directly. NNTP changed all this and now users can read news articles from Usenet more comfortably. A client which belongs to NNTP is a part of Internet Explorer, Opera, Netscape as well as other Web browsers. Users can also use news reader. With NNTP hosts which exchange news articles use an interactive mechanism to decide the articles to be transmitted. This helps in the transfer of only unduplicated articles. Moreover, only desired articles are let through.


It is not difficult for a user to subscribe to a distant group using a server belonging to NNTP. All one needs to do is to specify nntp as the desired method then put the address of the server belonging to NNTP as the address of hum.  If a user’s server is on a port which is non-standard, they should set the select methods third element to the number of the port and they will be able to connect to the right port although they will need to edit the info of the group.  The foreign groups name can be similar to that of the native group.


What is Power Line Networking?

Power line networking is an option used in the connection of computers with the intent of forming home networks.  This technology has the capability to influence a power free and wireless home network. In power line networking, the installation of additional cables or networking hardware for power consumption by the user is not required when setting up home networks.

What this networking uses as an option is the power lines that exist as ell as the homes power outlets in receiving and sending of information through several computers.  There is no cheaper method for setting up home networks because power line networking does not require any wiring or equipment for power consumption. There are two technologies used in power line networking and they are Power Packet and Antilogies. Power Packet uses division multiplexing of orthogonal frequency with an error correction that is forward.


This varies with the technology used in the networking of phone lines and DSL.  In this case, a variety of frequencies are utilized in a system of electrical wiring by splitting them into 84 different chunks. The data is simultaneously sent through the carrier frequencies.

Power surges and electrical noise could easily disrupt data transmission leading to a monitoring device in Power Packet for proper adjustments that maintain and ensure system speed and stability. This system of the Power Packet technology is reliable and fast. Antilogies uses the shifting key of frequency or the FSK in the transmission of data via the lines of power. Instead of using many frequencies, it only uses two in the transmission of data through the lines of power.

The effects of using two frequencies include the vulnerability of this networking system tom power surges and electrical noise effects which are bound to degrade the speed and performance of the network. Power line networking has some advantages and the first one is the cheap cost of installation and maintenance.  Additionally, data transmission through electrical wiring enables the computers to be connected to a network from anywhere in the house as long as there is an electrical outlet. Connection of additional computers to the system is easy because all that is required is a new installation kit.
Another convenience of using the power line networking is that the user is not required to connect his printer directly top the computer. The printer can be connected to an electrical outlet anywhere in the house where it will access any computer in that network.

The term SCADA defines Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

 It is a generic application structure classified to maintain process administration to accumulate information in real time across isolated regions.  The reason for the amassing of this secluded regional data is in order to manage devices in business linked to such industries as infrastructure - encompassing telecommunications and transportation, water and desecrate management and crude oil and gas refinery plants.  This information is then forwarded to the central computer for administration and organization.

As specified above, supervisory control and data acquisition systems were premeditated to carry out functions as spelt out within the acronym itself in order to make available a dependable way of combining the examination being carried out by apparatus known as remote terminal units (RTUs). However, with modern fast-speed assembly stipulations, supervisory control and data acquisition systems are needed to carry out computation and breakdown in real time while on the plant base of operation, successfully amalgamating what were prior the incongruent worlds of human-machine interface (HMI) and supervisory control and data acquisition systems.

This has implications that are far reaching impacting on the user’s supervisory control and data acquisition system to carry out in essence the mandate that led to its development.  This functionality displayed by this system is of high regard and consequential benefits on the part of the manufacturers.

The program will generally operate from a personal computer and relays information with peripheral apparatus and management devices.  The means of communication between the supervisory control and data acquisition system and peripheral devices can be one of several ways such as by use of a serial connector, modem for radio transition, field bus or Ethernet connections. Otherwise, there would a need for devices termed as converters to ensure the smooth flow of information in any case where paraphernalia with different crossing points of communication and protocols are required to be linked together.

The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems have been around and functioning for close to four decades at present having been established and exercised into employment in the era of the sixties.  The system incorporates both software and hardware elements that make up its main structure of operation. It is the work of the hardware devices to assemble information and then proceed to feed this information into the software employed by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.  It is the work of the mainframe to then proceed to process the data fed into it and come up with timely yield.


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